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gregory of nazianzus epistle 101

Since then these expressions, rightly understood, make for orthodoxy, but wrongly interpreted are heretical, what is there to be surprised at if we received the words of Vitalius in the more orthodox sense; our desire that they should be so meant persuading us, though others are angry at the intention of his writings? Gregory of Nazianzus (329–390 AD) is one of three people to receive the epitaph “Theologian.” The others are John the Apostle and Symeon (949–1022 AD). Later, John of Damascus would reject this view as well believing that it was impossible for God to offer Jesus to the devil. * 1 The title is meant in the strictest possible sense: Gregory defended the divinity (theo-) of the Word (logos) who became flesh (cf. But even though there is no precedent for such a course, let your inimitable perfection in virtue stand up at a crisis like the present, and teach our most pious Emperor, that no gain will come from his zeal for the Church on other points if he allows such an evil to gain strength from freedom of speech for the subversion of sound faith. For if the faith began thirty years ago, when nearly four hundred years had passed since Christ was manifested, vain all that time will have been our Gospel, and vain our faith; in vain will the Martyrs have borne their witness, and in vain have so many and so great Prelates presided over the people; and Grace is a matter of metres and not of the faith. And I will add this also: If the mind was utterly rejected, as prone to sin and subject to damnation, and for this reason He assumed a body but left out the mind, then there is an excuse for them who sin with the mind; for the witness of God — according to you — has shown the impossibility of healing it. And I say different Elements, because it is the reverse of what is the case in the Trinity; for There we acknowledge different Persons so as not to confound the persons; but not different Elements, for the Three are One and the same in Godhead. of Constan- tinople, then of Nazianzus f Wrote Theological Orations, letters and poems f “The Theologian,” teacher for Jerome 9 See the helpful discussions of the political background to the monothelite controversy in J. M. He was a man for whom S. Gregory had a very high esteem, and with whom he was upon terms of close friendship, as will be seen from other letters of Gregory to him in another division of this Selection. Baruch 3:37 And what can anyone contend further? Fill in the below and we will keep you informed, We are happy to answer your questions and to consider all constructive suggestions regarding the website. Introduction. If only half Adam fell, then that which Christ assumes and saves may be half also; but if the whole of his nature fell, it must be united to the whole nature of Him that was begotten, and so be saved as a whole. And who will not marvel at their learning, in that on their own authority they divide the things of Christ, and assign to His Manhood such sayings as He was born, He was tempted, He was hungry, He was thirsty, He was wearied, He was asleep; but reckon to His Divinity such as these: He was glorified by Angels, He overcame the Tempter, He fed the people in the wilderness, and He fed them in such a manner, and He walked upon the sea; and say on the one hand that the Where have you laid Lazarus? And so they declare that the Perfect Man is not He who was in all points tempted like as we are yet without sin; Hebrews 4:15 but the mixture of God and Flesh. But since our faith has been proclaimed, both in writing and without writing, here and in distant parts, in times of danger and of safety, how comes it that some make such attempts, and that others keep silence? And this would necessarily involve that while His form and tabernacle was human, His soul should be that of a horse or an ox, or some other of the brute creation. By A ndrew H ofer. Source. For many sounds are comprehended by one ear; and the eyes of many are occupied by the same visible objects, and the smell by odours; nor are the senses narrowed by each other, or crowded out, nor the objects of sense diminished by the multitude of the perceptions. But where is there mind of man or angel so perfect in comparison of the Godhead that the presence of the greater must crowd out the other? Or, if you like, an Angel compared with God, or a man with an Angel. If any assert that the Manhood was formed and afterward was clothed with the Godhead, he too is to be condemned. The Care of God, which throughout the time before us guarded the Churches, seems to have utterly forsaken this present life. Where in that case were His being handled after the Resurrection, or His being seen hereafter by them that pierced Him, for Godhead is in its nature invisible. But if you will look at what is mental and incorporeal, remember that I in my one personality can contain soul and reason and mind and the Holy Spirit; and before me this world, by which I mean the system of things visible and invisible, contained Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. For both natures are one by the combination, the Deity being made Man, and the Manhood deified or however one should express it. If anyone does not believe that Holy Mary is the Mother of God, he is severed from the Godhead. In Oration 31, Gregory of Nazianzus had commented on the unconventional grammar of 1 John 5:6-8 in manuscripts without the Comma (as explained above [LINK]). Such is their want of reason; it conflicts both with itself and with the truth to such an extent that they are neither conscious nor ashamed of it when they fall out with themselves. For a bushel measure will not hold two bushels, nor will the space of one body hold two or more bodies. c. 1, p. 172) are laid down. These points are made much better by St. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-390), in his famous Epistle 101, in which he scolded those who denied the reality of Christ’s human mind and human soul. My email address is feedback732 at newadvent.org. For it is evident that they can only have been so received as assenting to the Orthodox Faith, for this were an impossibility on any other terms. [haut - top] 200 9 - Ch. For this were not a Generation of God, but a shirking of generation. However, in the incarnation what we see is that the divine Logos (the second person of the Trinity) assumed a human body and spirit but not a human mind. An English translation of this text, placed alongside the Greek text, can be found on the subscription version of the site. All rights reserved © 2021 | Trinity In You, God: Who & Why series – Dr Bruce Wauchope, Theology and Anthropology (Mimetic Theory), The Post Reformers up to the 20th Century, THE TRINITY AND CREATIVITY – Marty Folsom, PhD, Intertwined in the Life of the Trinity – Dr. Marty Folsom. Not if you only look at Him in a bodily fashion. But when they are refuted and pressed with the common answers about the Incarnation which the Scripture presents, they confess indeed the orthodox words, but they do violence to the sense; for they acknowledge the Manhood to be neither without soul nor without reason nor without mind, nor imperfect, but they bring in the Godhead to supply the soul and reason and mind, as though It had mingled Itself only with His flesh, and not with the other properties belonging to us men; although His sinlessness was far above us, and was the cleansing of our passions. You must therefore either set aside the latter on account of sin, or admit the former on account of salvation. St. Athanasius 253 § 64. In this book, Gabrielle Thomas offers a close analysis of his writings and demonstrates how Nazianzen depicts both the nature and experience of … 2002 . But if anyone does not assent to this statement, either now or hereafter, he shall give account to God at the day of judgment. 62. For if His Manhood is without soul, even the Arians admit this, that they may attribute His Passion to the Godhead, as that which gives motion to the body is also that which suffers. If anyone has put his trust in Him as a Man without a human mind, he is really bereft of mind, and quite unworthy of salvation. And not even now, be well assured, should we have written this, if we had not seen that the Church was being torn asunder and divided, among their other tricks, by their present synagogue of vanity. CXLI. These wicked and utterly abandoned men have dared, in addition to all their other misdeeds, either to summon, or to make a bad use of the passage (I am not prepared to say precisely which) of certain Bishops, deprived by the whole Synod of the Eastern and Western Church; and, in violation of all Imperial Ordinances, and of your commands, to confer the name of Bishop on a certain individual of their own misbelieving and deceitful crew; encouraged to do so, as I believe, by nothing so much as my great infirmity; for I must mention this. They who argue thus do not know that such expressions are used by Synecdoche, declaring the whole by the part, as when Scripture says that the young ravens call upon God, to indicate the whole feathered race; or Pleiades, Hesperus, and Arcturus Job 9:9 are mentioned, instead of all the Stars and His Providence over them. Let them not, then, begrudge us our complete salvation, or clothe the Saviour only with bones and nerves and the portraiture of humanity. And since a question has also been mooted concerning the Divine Assumption of humanity, or Incarnation, state this also clearly to all concerning me, that I join in One the Son, who was begotten of the Father, and afterward of the Virgin Mary, and that I do not call Him two Sons, but worship Him as One and the same in undivided Godhead and honour. Gregory of Nazianzus Letter 101 to Cledonius §1 - §16 [in] On God and Christ: the five theological orations and two letters to Cledonius . If any introduce the notion of Two Sons, one of God the Father, the other of the Mother, and discredits the Unity and Identity, may he lose his part in the adoption promised to those who believe aright. I at any rate, knowing better than anyone, as I did, the thoughts and the heresy of the Apollinarians, and seeing that their folly was intolerable; yet thinking that I could tame them by patience and soften them by degrees, I let my hopes make me eager to attain this object. Gregory of Nazianzus 9 May d. 390 Bishop and Theologian f Studied at Athens with Basil and Julian f Friend but not relative of other Cappadocians f Brilliant rhetorician and orator; difficult, reclusive personality f Bishop of Sasima, then [Nicene] Bp. 318 RE V I E W S such language consistently, but in order to emphasize the mys- terious character of the mixtures of the human being, and of Jesus Christ, rather than to explain them. But, it may be said, our mind is subject to condemnation. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1894.) In 382 Gregory was summoned to a Synod at Constantinople… Ep. ... is carried through in Hofer’s analysis of Epistle 101 in chapter 6. And as we say this to disarm suspicion, so we write the other to correct the novel teaching. But since, puffed up by their theory of the Trinity, they falsely accuse us of being unsound in the Faith and entice the multitude, it is necessary that people should know that Apollinarius, while granting the Name of Godhead to the Holy Ghost, did not preserve the Power of the Godhead. Olympius, to whom the last of this series is addressed, was Governor of Cappadocia Secunda in a.d. 382. Since, then, they have been openly convicted of this, let them not be angry, but let them be ashamed of themselves; and let them not slander us, but abase themselves and wipe off from their portals that great and marvellous proclamation and boast of their orthodoxy, meeting all who go in at once with the question and distinction that we must worship, not a God-bearing Man, but a flesh-bearing God. Those who follow the heresy of Arius or Eudoxius (I cannot say who stirred them up to this folly) are making a display of their disease, as if they had attained some degree of confidence by collecting congregations as if by permission. In the letter to Nectarius, his own successor on the throne of Constantinople, written about a.d. 383, and sometimes reckoned as Orat. Let me state the greater results. Select Letters of Saint Gregory Nazianzen. Forasmuch as many persons have come to your Reverence seeking confirmation of their faith, and therefore you have affectionately asked me to put forth a brief definition and rule of my opinion, I therefore write to your Reverence, what indeed you knew before, that I never have and never can honour anything above the Nicene Faith, that of the Holy Fathers who met there to destroy the Arian heresy; but am, and by God's help ever will be, of that faith; completing in detail that which was incompletely said by them concerning the Holy Ghost; for that question had not then been mooted, namely, that we are to believe that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are of one Godhead, thus confessing the Spirit also to be God. If any worship not the Crucified, let him be Anathema and be numbered among the Deicides. But if He has a soul, and yet is without a mind, how is He man, for man is not a mindless animal? Or, again, they must suppose that our fathers went down into Egypt without bodies and invisible, and that only the Soul of Joseph was imprisoned by Pharaoh, because it is written, They went down into Egypt with threescore and fifteen Souls, and The iron entered into his Soul, a thing which could not be bound. For that which He has not assumed He has not healed; but that which is united to His Godhead is also saved. My summation of Gregory of Nazianzus’ attack on Apollinarianism: “[W]e do not sever the man from the Godhead, but we lay down as a dogma the unity and identity [of person]…,” the eternal God assuming manhood for our salvation. Christ in the Life and Teaching of Gregory of Nazianzus is the first full-length book devoted to an overview of the Christology of this fourth-century Father of the Church. What then of our flesh? For that flesh is less precious than soul, everyone who has a spark of sense will acknowledge. Translated by Charles Gordon Browne and James Edward Swallow. For if one were to change the word Man or Flesh into God (the first would please us, the second them), and then were to use this wonderful antithesis, so divinely recognized, what conclusion should we arrive at? They play the same trick with the word that describes the Incarnation, viz. The most grievous part of it is not (though this too is shocking) that the men instil their own heresy into simpler souls by means of those who are worse; but that they also tell lies about us and say that we share their opinions and sentiments; thus baiting their hooks, and by this cloak villainously fulfilling their will, and making our simplicity, which looked upon them as brothers and not as foes, into a support of their wickedness. And now if it had been possible for me to teach you this myself, I should not have hesitated, you may be sure, even to undertake a journey beyond my strength to throw myself at the feet of your Excellency. Google Scholar. They ought rather to have first persuaded us, or to have been willing to be persuaded by us (if at least any account is to be taken of us as fearing God, labouring for the faith, and helping the Church), and then, if at all, to innovate; but then perhaps there would be an excuse for their outrageous conduct. For it is not laid by in the sun, according to the babble of the Manichæans, that it should be honoured by a dishonour; nor was it poured forth into the air and dissolved, as is the nature of a voice or the flow of an odour, or the course of a lightning flash that never stands. By A ndrew H ofer. Dr. Ullman, however, thinks that while S. Gregory was certainly speaking the truth in saying that he had in his hands a pamphlet by Apollinarius, yet that he, perhaps unconsciously, exaggerated the heretical character of its contents, pushing its statements to consequences which Apollinarius would have repudiated. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. For that flesh is less precious than soul, everyone who has a spark of sense will acknowledge. choresis was first used by Gregory Nazianzen in the fourth century ad,inhisEpistle 101 and elsewhere, ... 5 Gregory, Epistle 101,inPatrologia Graeca 37.181C, cited in Otto, ‘The use and abuse of perichoresis, p. 368. , I went back to the Greek text and began to revise Browne and Download books for free. And I write it, not with any desire to compose a treatise, but only to check the progress of deceit; and if it is thought well, I will give a fuller account of these matters at greater length. :”(“To Cledonius Against Apollinaris” [Epistle 101], in Christology of the Later Fathers, ed. If anyone does not believe that Holy Mary is the Mother of God, he is severed from the Godhead. 8 Gregory of Nazianzus, “To Cledonius Against Apollinaris (Epistle 101),” in Christology of the Later Fathers (ed. If anyone has put his trust in Him as a Man without a human mind, he is really bereft of mind, and quite unworthy of salvation. Let me state the greater results. If the clay was leavened and has become a new lump, O you wise men, shall not the Image be leavened and mingled with God, being deified by His Godhead? (To help fight spam, this address might change occasionally.) The most grievous part of it is not (though this too is shocking) that the men instil their own heresy into simpler souls by means of those who are worse; but that they also tell lies about us and say that we share their opinions and sentiments; thus baiting their hooks, and by this cloak villainously fulfilling their will, and making our simplicity, which looked upon them as brothers and not as foes, into a support of their wickedness. But if it is serious, and not to be endured by our most august Emperors, pray punish what has been done — though more mildly than such madness merits. Mind is mingled with mind, as nearer and more closely related, and through it with flesh, being a Mediator between God and carnality. On the Words, the Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Father Very God Before All Ages, by Whom All Things Were Made. St. Epiphanius 310 § 72. CXXVI. I would they were even cut off that trouble you, Galatians 5:12 and would reintroduce a second Judaism, and a second circumcision, and a second system of sacrifices. What then of our flesh? St. Gregory of Nyssa wrote a large refutation, Antirrheticus. But if it is mere words, and an invention of their own, devised for the sake of appearances and to give them weight with the multitude through the credit of the persons, teach them to hold their tongues, and confute them; for we believe that such a task is well suited to your manner of life and orthodoxy. For the words, The Second Man is the Lord from Heaven; and, As is the Heavenly, such are they that are Heavenly; and, No man has ascended up into Heaven save He which came down from Heaven, even the Son of Man which is in Heaven; and the like, are to be understood as said on account of the Union with the heavenly; just as that All Things were made by Christ, and that Christ dwells in your hearts is said, not of the visible nature which belongs to God, but of what is perceived by the mind, the names being mingled like the natures, and flowing into one another, according to the law of their intimate union. But, that they may not accuse us of having once accepted but of now repudiating the faith of their beloved Vitalius which he handed in in writing at the request of the blessed Bishop Damasus of Rome, I will give a short explanation on this point also. Pseudo-Athanasius, De incarnatione contra Apollinarem. For we do not sever the Man from the Godhead, but we lay down as a dogma the Unity and Identity of Person, Who of old was not Man but God, and the Only Son before all ages, unmingled with body or anything corporeal; but Who in these last days has assumed Manhood also for our salvation; passible in His Flesh, impassible in His Godhead; circumscript in the body, uncircumscript in the Spirit; at once earthly and heavenly, tangible and intangible, comprehensible and incomprehensible; that by One and the Same Person, Who was perfect Man and also God, the entire humanity fallen through sin might be created anew. And he puts forward as a witness to this monstrous assertion a garbled quotation from the Gospels, namely, No man has Ascended up into Heaven save He which came down from Heaven, even the Son of Man which is in Heaven. Where in that case were His being handled after the Resurrection, or His being seen hereafter by them that pierced Him, for Godhead is in its nature invisible. worthy, being one of the most important. Keep then the whole man, and mingle Godhead therewith, that you may benefit me in my completeness. Section 101 For one in high estate, if he fail to make further progress and to disseminate virtue still more widely, and contents himself with slight results, incurs punishment, as having spent a great light upon the illumination of a little house, or girt round the limbs of a boy the full armor of a man. Discussions of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, ed when I ought to:. Am but an ignorant man, and mingle Godhead therewith, that your monstrous folly may said... Is their account of the image of himself the church, born at Arianzus Asia. Partial incar… Epistle 101 ( part of ) Rosemary Radford Ruether | download | Z-Library Letter collection Gregory. 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