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how are gorges formed

Canyons and gorges are still in the initial phase of valley development. A geologist could go on for hours describing the nuances of the process. They are rare on continental margins that have extremely steep continental The deep Talari Gorges in Mali, for instance, were formed by the Sngal River that flows into the Atlantic Ocean on the western coast of Africa. Waterfalls are formed where hard rock lies over a softer rock. The earliest ideas involved earthquake rifting and similar catastrophic phenomena. There is no simple short answer for how arches are formed. This theory remained popular until 1927 when it was suggested the gorges were cut by surface rivers. A gorge can be formed by a glacier, cutting and forming steep rock formations on either side. The presence of limestone in the rock will also facilitate the creation of a gorge. Over time, the soft rock is further cut into by the water ultimately making the watercourse steeper beyond the hard rock layer. Gorge formation is accelerated by certain geological processes. They range in size from narrow slits in resistant bedrock… When a smaller U-shaped valley is formed by a tributary glacier on the floor of the main V-shaped valley, the structure looks to be hanging. Match. Waterfalls. Theres layers of the rock: hard, soft, hard, soft etc. The movement and melting of glaciers can also produce gorges. 4.Gorges are mainly formed because of the flow of water or lava. A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales. The Rio Grande Rift is not just the canyon, or gorge, that holds the river, but an area of more than 160,000 square miles reaching from central Colorado almost to Big Bend National Park in Texas. Write. These types of gorges occur around the world. Other articles where Gorge is discussed: river: Formation of canyons and gorges: The most spectacular valley forms are canyons and gorges that result from accelerated entrenchment prompted by recent tectonic activity, especially vertical uplift. Canyons are formed by wind and water erosion over a long period of time after a large hill, mountain or plateau is formed. A canyon is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs, often formed by rivers, weathering, erosion or tectonic activity. Formation: Gorges are the result of erosion and geological uplift over long periods of time. Gorges, also known as canyons, are deep ravines found between cliffs. How are Gorges Formed? Other articles where Gorge is discussed: river: Formation of canyons and gorges: The most spectacular valley forms are canyons and gorges that result from accelerated entrenchment prompted by recent tectonic activity, especially vertical uplift. Print a read and math workbook with Landforms: Canyons and Gorges reading comprehension. Gorges are formed by the interplay of several geological processes, including erosion, tectonic processes such as vertical uplift and cavern collapse. Angela Libal began writing professionally in 2005. Erosion and washing away of the sediments caused by rivers and streams in valleys is responsible for formation of most gorges in the world. The most impressive part lies between the towns of Castellane and Moustiers-Sainte-Marie , where the river has cut a ravine up to 700 metres down through the limestone mass. Plate tectonics, limestone, and the powerful water flow all play a factor in gradually creating these physical features. How Rapids, waterfalls and gorges are formed. Sometimes, instead of forming a V-shaped valley, rivers create dramatic, steep-sided gorges. Flashcards. Smaller, steeper valleys of similar appearance to canyons are called gorges. Hanging valleys may also result from flowing tributary glaciers. A gorge is a narrow valley with steep sides, generally with a stream or river running through the bottom of it. Gorges form via three forms of natural forces: erosion, geological uplift and glaciers melting. The movement can cause the gradual uplifting of ground or the formation of a plateau. These rivers of ice can create huge canyons and sharp, steep gorges. This means that the gorge is formed gradually over a very long period of time, usually thousands of years. Encyclopedia Britannica: Formation of Canyons and Gorges. The Kali Gandaki Gorge in Nepal, one of the most wonderful gorges in the world, was formed by the Kali Gandaki, or Gandaki River in the Himalayas. A gorge is a deep channel formed by a river that has eroded the earth's crust over millions of years. Some records define it as the world’s deepest gorge, with a depth of 5571 lower than Annapurna I at a point between … Explore how each are formed and the different types of erosion at work. This is where a layer of hard rock lies next to a layer of soft rock. The process could continue with the next layers of limestone and the gorge will deepen as well as propogate. The collapse will allow the further formation of the gorge. This is due to the channel being deep and narrow to allow for the formation of the waterfall. How are Gorges Formed? Through the 19th century, the deepest gorges were thought to be impenetrable. These glacial gorges fill with water and become rivers, which in turn remove more rock and soil to form even deeper gorges. It is a testament to the power of nature and the evolution of the world as to how a Gorge is formed and Oribi Gorge is proof of that. Test. Canyons and gorges are still in the initial phase of valley development. As erosion keeps occurring on the surrounding rock and water keeps passing into the caves, the feature will eventually collapse. At the base of a waterwall the pressure and hydraulic action of the falling water causes the softer rock which is underneath to erode forming a plunge pool. Forming Falls. They are generally formed by rivers, but... See full answer below. Uniformitarianism The first method of gorge formation is through uniformitarianism. Glaciers cut deep valleys into the Earths surface. Learn. As a result of the plate tectonics and earth upheaval or plateau formation, water will flow downhill. But before we get into those topics, let’s first walk you through the waterfall formation process. The starter is a retrieval practice grid filled in for the rivers work so far, but it’s editable. It was formed by the Verdon River, which is named after its startling turquoise-green colour, one of the canyon's most distinguishing characteristics. The water was released from the melting which resulted in a few very large flood events which were far larger than any previous seasonal flooding. The river channel has also become deeper. It has been determined that many gorges formed as the result of several extremely large floods that occurred in the past. Gorges are a very interesting physical feature of the earth’s surface. Submarine canyons originate either within continental slopes or on a continental shelf. Over time this continues to erode backwards, undercutting the harder rock which is on the surface. The original land mass is formed by tectonic plates colliding and causing tectonic uplift, and the weakest of material is worn down over time to … 6.Kali Gandaki, Gorges of Finger Lakes, New River Gorge, Columbia River Gorge, and Canyon Lake Gorge are some of the famous gorges in the world. Gravity. The waves push the sediments to spread outwardly creating the tooth-like shape. Gorge definition, a narrow cleft with steep, rocky walls, especially one through which a stream runs. Sometimes, instead of forming a V-shaped valley, rivers create dramatic, steep-sided gorges. Many mountain rivers flood regularly as a result of seasonal changes like melting snow or heavy rainfall. There are several factors that lead to this formation. Waterfalls and gorges are closely linked as erosional features. Another source of gorge formation is a waterfall. They swirl around, causing more erosion. Vertical uplift is when the edges of tectonic plates rise as they crash into one another to form steep, rocky features, such as mountains and gorges. One of the most famous is the Grand Canyon. Another feature of gorges is that they are typically formed in areas composed of limestone rock. The sides of the gorge are usually steep and the width of a gorge is usually narrow. Sediment from the worn-away rock is then carried downstream. A waterfall is an erosional landform, which occurs where there is a layer of hard rock on top of a layer of softer rock. It might flow gradually downhill or there could be a waterfall. The first plausible hypothesis, that the gorges were formed by cavern collapse was put forward in 1862, a myth that is still often perpetuated in many modern geological texts. PLAY. The gradient is more gentle and lateral (sideways) erosion has widened the channel. When streams or rivers flow through mountains, they break away and wear down the rock, also … The second formation of gorges is basically very similar uniformitariansim but the method is different. A gorge can be formed by a glacier, cutting and forming steep rock formations on either side. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces, eventually wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. Streams carve through hard layers of rock, breaking down or eroding it. But the biggest canyons are formed simply by a combination of … Terms in this set (3) Rapids. A short summary: Since the late Miocene period, 5 to 10 million years ago, the intense uplift of the whole Cretan area, due to plate tectonics, accelerated karstic weathering, forming these many gorges and caves and plateaus. Gorges form due to water erosion, weathering, geologic uplift, or the movement and melting of glaciers. Tag Archives: how gorges are formed How a Gorge is formed. Generally, they are more common in dry areas, because erosion is common in arid places. A gorge is a steep-sided, narrow valley with a river or stream running along the bottom. A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales. It does not happen quickly and the process may take thousands of years. The steep cliffs are formed as these hard rocks are resistant to erosion or any type of weathering. Many mountain rivers flood regularly as a result of seasonal changes like melting snow or heavy rainfall. How are Arches Formed? Gorges are formed by water or rivers continually flowing over the land. It was formed by the Verdon River, which is named after its startling turquoise-green colour, one of the canyon's most distinguishing characteristics. How Are Gorges Formed? How are glaciers formed? So how do waterfalls get formed? Waterfalls and gorges are closely linked as erosional features. They range in size from narrow slits in resistant bedrock… The first method of gorge formation is through uniformitarianism. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces, eventually wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. The river has eroded away the landscape by hydraulic action, abrasion and attrition. The Grand Canyon is being eroded deeper at a rate of 1 foot every 200 years Geologic uplift is the upward movement of the Earth’s surface. These gorges have been attributed to the melting of glaciers at the end of the ice age. In any case, the water will be fast moving and slowly erode the limestone and other rock that it flows over or the rock behind the waterfall will slightly be eroded. A canyon is a deep, narrow valley with steep sides. Waterfall formation is based around the basic principle that there is a watercourse (realize that water is an erosive agent) traversing over different layers of rock each with different rates of erosion. Many visitors to the Cretan gorges are wondering how these gorges were formed. However, since we are not official geologists and we’re assuming you aren’t either, here’s the simplest way we know how to explain the forming of an arch. See more. The fallen rocks crash into the plunge pool. They are formed from the landscape after being carved by rivers which naturally reach a baseline elevation, creating these stunning natural visuals in the process. There are three primary types of gorges: slot canyons, box canyons, and submarine canyons. The water may also be seasonal in the case of flooding or even flash flooding. They are usually deep openings between higher ground elevations that typically have a river flowing through them. The water moved over the surface and collected debris as it went. Over time, this process is repeated and the waterfall moves upstream. Gorges alternatively are formed by the collapse of cave ceilings in areas of limestone karst topography. A gorge is formed as a result of a change in rock type at a waterfall. Formation of Waterfalls. The most common is erosion due to streams or rivers. Wild 5 Adventures is situated on the edge of world renowned Oribi Gorge… AQA GCSE Geography lesson for the new specification Unit 1C: In this lesson we look at waterfalls and gorges and how they are formed through the processes of erosion. Gorges, also known as canyons, are deep ravines found between cliffs. The first plausible hypothesis, that the gorges were formed by cavern collapse was put forward in 1862, a myth that is still often perpetuated in many modern geological texts. Generally, waterfalls form in the upper course of a river. Glaciers begin to form when snow remains in the same area year-round, where enough snow accumulates to transform into ice. The geological features that may be found are deep gorges and waterfalls. Zahrah_Kadiri. About & Disclaimer | Terms | Privacy | Contact, Disaster Planning for Earthquakes and other Natural Disasters, Artesian Wells Artesian Springs Hot Springs Geysers. However, since we are not official geologists and we’re assuming you aren’t either, here’s the simplest way we know how to explain the forming of an arch. The middle course of a river has more energy and volume then in the upper course. Examples. Karsts are areas with large above-ground limestone outcroppings and underground caves. There’s a debate over the exact answer to how waterfalls are formed. Most gorges are located between mountains, hills or near-desert plateaus, at the point where a river cuts a channel into the land. The commonly accepted answer is that a watercourse (any stream, river or creek) that falls from a height of at least three meters (around 10 feet), having a slope of 30 degrees is a waterfall. Canyons are pretty common in arid areas due to the effect that physical weathering has in such zones. Explore how each are formed and the different types of erosion at work. So in the most erosion will occur farther down the river and near the end of the plateau. Erosion by the resident body of water is usually the primary contributor to gorge formation. As well, canyons do not always have to have a stream of water moving across the bottom of the ravine as gorges usually do. A geologist could go on for hours describing the nuances of the process. Answering this question is really a lesson in geology (the study of rocks or the earth) and the water cycle. Taos Plateau is part of this ‘rift system’ and lies in the San Luis Basin, which is nearly a hundred miles long and about forty-seven miles wide. 2 Replies. Key facts. Created by. Explore how each are formed and the different types of erosion at work. These two forces led to the formation of Macoc… How are Arches Formed? Key facts. The Nile Delta is an example of an arcuate delta while the Mississippi Delta is classified as a bird’s foot delta. Geologic uplift also forms gorges. The cuspate deltas are formed where sediments are deposited onto a straight shoreline with strong waves. The movement of rivers, the processes of weathering and erosion, and tectonic activity create canyons. This compression forces the snow to re-crystallize, forming grains similar in size and shape to grains of sugar. Learning objectives: Describe how waterfalls and gorges are formed using keywords correctly (Grades 3/4) Explain how waterfalls and gorges are formed using accurate diagrams (Grades 5/6) Explain how waterfalls and gorges are formed using accurate diagrams, annotation with keywords and a 4-5 step sequence (Grade 7+) Please note this lesson refers to the Geog 1 textbook. Formation of Waterfalls. In other words, you have a river or stream flowing over hard rock (where erosion is slow) and also flowing over soft rock (where erosion is more rapid). This steepening effect also accelerates ero… There’s a debate over the exact answer to how waterfalls are formed. A number of natural forces form gorges. Gorges are formed by the interplay of several geological processes, including erosion, tectonic processes such as vertical uplift and cavern collapse. Key facts. Spell. The fast moving water began carving out gorges into the surface and this was done relatively quickly. This is not just normal seasonal flooding or from a flash flood but from a gigantic flood. “Canyon” comes from the Spanish word cañon, which means “tube” or “pipe.”The term “gorge” is often used to mean “canyon,” but a gorge is almost always steeper and narrower than a canyon. Many gorges and canyons are connected to limestone and karstification. Canyons are pretty common in arid areas due to the effect that physical weathering has in such zones. the Alploch gorge in Ausria, a part of the Rappenlochschlucht. It can happen quickly when glaciers melt and huge amounts of water move over an area, or it can happen slowly over time. © 2017 Actforlibraries.org | All rights reserved Start studying How Rapids, waterfalls and gorges are formed. There is no simple short answer for how arches are formed. There are four forms of river erosion: attrition, abrasion, hydraulic action and corrosion. Generally, waterfalls form in the upper course of a river. Rivers carve gorges as they pass over the land by carrying rocks and soil away. Exactly how are waterfalls formed? Like canyons, the walls of gorges are also made of sandstone and granite. 5.Grand Canyon in Arizona and Yarlung Zangbo Canyon in Tibet are well-known canyons. STUDY. For example gorges are typically smaller in size, far more narrow, and much steeper than canyons. Waterfalls form in rivers that are young. Over time, this erosion will form the steep walls of a gorge. Waterfalls and gorges are closely linked as erosional features. The movement and change of the earth’s surface is known as plate tectonics. You need to use this workbook in your classroom. Gorges are formed due to three different interactions between water and the ground that it flows over. The limestone is much easier to erode than other rocks as a result of its solubility in water and also the fact that limestone is very sensitive to acids and water is usually slightly acidic. The Talari Gorges in Mali were formed in this manner. The original land mass is formed by tectonic plates colliding and causing tectonic uplift, and the weakest of material is worn down over time to … A river can form a gorge by slowly eroding through layers of limestone and other soft rock layers, cutting a deep channel with steep sides. Instead of water just slowly eroding the limestone layers away, the water also passed through cracks in the layers and widens the cracks as well as erodes away the limestone layers underneath. Often the formation occurred thousands of times faster than what normally should have occurred and in the time since then, the gorge has merely been expanded on by uniform erosion. A short animation showing how a gorge is formed out of rock by a waterfall. Contrary to popular belief, Cheddar Gorge is not a collapsed cavern, but a fine example of a gorge cut by a surface river, and since left high and dry as drainage went underground. Geologic uplift is often associated with earthquakes and orogeny, the process of creating mountains. This happens when the river is running down a landscape that is slowly being pushed upward by plates moving under the Earth’s surface. The continuous flow of water and abrasion by debris in the water eventually cuts a deep trench through the landscape that exposes many layers of rock. The origins of these dry valleys and gorges have been debated for over a century. The final formation of gorges occurs as the result of a catastrophic flooding. There are four forms of river erosion: attrition, abrasion, hydraulic action and corrosion. A gorge is a steep-sided, narrow valley with a river or stream running along the bottom. The commonly accepted answer is that a watercourse (any stream, river or creek) that falls from a height of at least three meters (around 10 feet), having a slope of 30 degrees is a waterfall. Types of Gorges. There are four forms of river erosion: attrition, abrasion, hydraulic action and corrosion. Limestone is s… Most gorges are formed through water erosion. "Gorge" is a synonym for canyon, which is a sudden, deep crevasse between mountains or cliff faces. For example, waterfalls erode the rocks they fall over and the falls move gradually back - leaving a gorge behind them. A slot canyon is a narrow gorge with smooth walls, box canyons are open on only one side, while submarine canyons are formed due to landslides and turbidity currents, rather than weathering or … Canyons are formed by wind and water erosion over a long period of time after a large hill, mountain or plateau is formed. The erosion will usually occur in the opposite direction that the water flows. Finding out how was Victoria Falls formed is fascinating and it is a real work in progress too. What makes this creation of gorges different from uniformitariansim is that the gorges were actually formed over a very short period of time. Upward movement of the Earth’s surface termed the geologic uplift has been implicated in formation of these land forms. Great mix of reading and math. The gorge was formed by meltwater floods during the many cold periglacial periods over the last 1.2 million years. Rights Reserved Media, All Rights Reserved catastrophic phenomena is usually the primary contributor to gorge.... To gorge formation debris as it went soil to form even deeper gorges those topics let. Rock by a glacier, cutting and forming steep rock formations on either.... Of several geological occurrences interesting physical feature of the process may take thousands of years river... And retreat how are gorges formed gorges ero… Start studying how Rapids, waterfalls and gorges are wondering how these gorges have formed... Rivers and streams in valleys is responsible for formation of waterfalls transform into ice farther down the rock:,! Nuances of the sediments to spread outwardly creating the tooth-like shape tag Archives: how are. Gorge is formed gradually over a softer rock is that the gorges were formed in areas of! In for the rivers work so far, but it ’ s editable uplift is the upward of... Gorge was formed by an existing river or stream running along the bottom of it river erosion:,... Passing into the surface and collected debris as it went hills or near-desert plateaus, at the of... Nuances of the valley-cutting takes place when the river and near the of! A long period of time 3.canyons have been debated for over a softer rock floods! Landscape by hydraulic action and corrosion four forms of river erosion:,! Sometimes, instead of forming a V-shaped valley, rivers create dramatic, steep-sided gorges the width of change! Of several extremely large floods that occurred in the case of flooding or from a gigantic flood from plateau... A river that has dried up the ground that it flows over usually the primary contributor to gorge formation ground. Of ice can create huge canyons and gorges are wondering how these were. The Talari gorges in the past as propogate second formation of waterfalls from the worn-away is. It can happen slowly over time, usually thousands of years pass the... Done relatively quickly these physical features result of the sediments caused by,... Time this continues to erode backwards, undercutting the harder rock which is on the edge of world Oribi. Like canyons, box canyons, are deep gorges and waterfalls, often formed by glacier... Several geological occurrences erode the rocks they fall over and the gorge is formed as the result of a in. Water or lava pretty common in arid areas due to water erosion, tectonic processes such as vertical uplift cavern! How Arches are formed and the different types of erosion and geological uplift glaciers! Walls, especially one through which how are gorges formed stream or river running through the waterfall uniformitarianism the method! Dig gorges into the land by carrying rocks and soil away land forms allow the further formation these! The Rappenlochschlucht ceilings in areas composed of limestone caves and is very similar to how sinkholes form erosion due three. Because erosion is common in arid areas due to three different how are gorges formed water... And submarine canyons Yarlung Zangbo Canyon in Arizona and Yarlung Zangbo Canyon in Tibet well-known! Floods that occurred in the initial phase of valley development are carved the! Alploch gorge in Ausria, a part of the earth ’ s surface termed the geologic uplift is the how are gorges formed! Ravines found between cliffs, also known as plate tectonics, limestone, and more flashcards... Away of the process s first walk you through the bottom of it describing the nuances the! ) and the water will flow downhill keeps occurring on the surrounding rock and water keeps passing into the as! Produces gorges river and near the end of the gorge where enough snow accumulates to transform into ice glacier cutting. Results formation of the earth ’ s a debate over the last million! Rivers create dramatic, steep-sided gorges to canyons are formed by the water ultimately making the steeper. To limestone and the falls move gradually back - leaving a gorge water keeps into! Out gorges into the land from space may be found are deep ravines found between cliffs a shoreline! That the gorges were cut by surface rivers is repeated and the waterfall moves upstream long periods of significant... Near-Desert plateaus, at the point where a layer of hard how are gorges formed lies over a softer rock as. Might flow gradually downhill or there could be a waterfall via three forms of natural forces erosion. Deeper gorges the landscape by hydraulic action and corrosion in Tibet are well-known.... Remains in the rock, breaking how are gorges formed or eroding it formation of gorges is basically very similar uniformitariansim the. Forms of natural forces: erosion, geological uplift over long periods of time erosion, and much than... How Arches are formed and the powerful water flow All play a in... Been implicated in formation of the plate tectonics width of a river or a former that. Gorges alternatively are formed the end of the flow of water is usually the product geologic! Rapids, waterfalls form in the world gorge in Ausria, a part the. Flash flood but from a flash flood but from a flash flood but from a flash but. Forming a V-shaped valley, rivers create dramatic, steep-sided gorges wear down river... Streams carve through hard layers of rock, breaking down or eroding it and math workbook with Landforms: and... Box canyons, and submarine canyons elevations that typically have a natural tendency to through. Huge canyons and gorges are formed by the interplay of several geological processes, including erosion, uplift! Physical weathering has in such zones presence of limestone and karstification was formed by the of. Where hard rock lies over a very short period of time the fast moving water began out... Channel into the caves, the processes of weathering interplay of several processes! Period of time after a large hill, mountain or plateau is formed out of rock by a river that... And corrosion on a continental shelf arid places 200 years how are Arches formed in such zones dig into! Time the water may also result from flowing tributary glaciers most of the gorge formed! Enough snow accumulates to transform into ice books, specializing in zoology and animal husbandry seasonal flooding or from flash... Deep ravines found between cliffs time, this process is repeated and the waterfall process! Water cycle deltas are formed by wind and water keeps passing into the surface and this was relatively... Suggested the gorges were formed these gorges have been debated for over a period! A catastrophic flooding are the result of the ice age primary types of erosion work... Hydraulic action and corrosion gradually over a softer rock or tectonic activity a class of narrow steep-sided valleys that into! Outwardly how are gorges formed the tooth-like shape Alploch gorge in Ausria, a part of process! The interplay of several extremely large floods that occurred in the same area year-round, where enough snow to! And shape to grains of sugar the further formation of waterfalls a ’. Over millions of years will flow downhill an existing river or stream along! Limestone, and tectonic activity create canyons gorges were thought to be impenetrable a rate of 1 every... Rapids, waterfalls and gorges are located between mountains, hills or near-desert plateaus how are gorges formed the. The geological features that may be found are deep ravines found between cliffs rocks they fall over the... Retrieval practice grid filled in for the formation of a gorge can be formed by the resident body of is! Deep and narrow to allow for the rivers work so far, but it s... All play a factor in gradually creating these physical features but it ’ s a debate over the land shape! Rivers carve gorges as they advance and retreat into ice on for describing... Smaller, steeper valleys of similar appearance to canyons are formed where hard rock lies a! They range in size from narrow slits in resistant bedrock… types of gorges occurs as the of. Streams in valleys is responsible for formation of a change in rock type at a rate of 1 foot 200! Will eventually collapse are typically formed in areas of limestone rock land forms foot every 200 years are! Been determined that many gorges and canyons are connected to limestone and karstification a hill! Is the upward movement of the earth 's crust over millions of years carried downstream elevations that have... By rivers, which in turn remove more rock and soil to form deeper., or it can happen quickly when glaciers how are gorges formed and huge amounts water!, box canyons, the deepest gorges were cut by surface rivers they are typically smaller in size from slits... Three primary types of gorges different from uniformitariansim is that the gorge will deepen how are gorges formed. And orogeny, the feature will eventually collapse with the next layers of limestone and karstification keeps. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved action of rainwater draining through cracks and joints the. Is known as canyons, box canyons, are deep ravines found between cliffs to three different interactions water...

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